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What is ceramic material and its properties

What is ceramic material and its properties

Ceramics are widely used in scientific research, industrial equipment and life due to their excellent characteristics such as high hardness and high wear resistance. The following Pintejin Zirconia Ceramics Factory will analyze what materials and properties of ceramics are.

Zirconia material ceramic ring

Ceramic materials refer to a class of inorganic non-metallic materials made of natural or synthetic compounds through shaping and high-temperature sintering. It has the advantages of high melting point, high hardness, high wear resistance and oxidation resistance. It can be used as structural material and tool material. Because ceramic also has some special properties, it can also be used as functional material.


Ceramic materials are engineering materials with better stiffness and higher hardness, and their hardness is mostly above 1500HV. Ceramics have high compressive strength, but low tensile strength and poor plasticity and toughness.

Thermal characteristics

Ceramic materials generally have a high melting point (mostly above 2000 ° C), and have good chemical stability at high temperatures; the thermal conductivity of ceramics is lower than that of metal materials, and ceramics are also good thermal insulation materials. At the same time, the linear expansion coefficient of ceramics is lower than that of metals, and when the temperature changes, ceramics have good dimensional stability.

alumina ceramic block

Electrical characteristics

Most ceramics have good electrical insulation, so they are widely used to make insulating devices of various voltages (1kV~110kV). Ferroelectric ceramics (BaTiO3) have a high dielectric constant and can be used to make capacitors. Ferroelectric ceramics can also change shape under the action of an external electric field and convert electrical energy into mechanical energy (with the characteristics of piezoelectric materials), It can be used as amplifier, record player, ultrasonic instrument, sonar, medical sound spectrometer, etc. A few ceramics also have the properties of semiconductors and can be used as rectifiers.

chemical properties

Ceramic materials are not easily oxidized at high temperatures, and have good corrosion resistance to acids, alkalis and salts.

Optical properties

Ceramic materials also have unique optical properties, which can be used as solid-state laser materials, optical fiber materials, optical storage, etc., and transparent ceramics can be used in high-pressure sodium lamps. Magnetic ceramics (ferrites such as: MgFe2O4, CuFe2O4, Fe3O4) have broad prospects in the application of tapes, records, transformer cores, and large-scale computer memory components.

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